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R(QP ) = QP The most widely used versions of rate control for the H264 standard are explained in [36, 37] and they are improvements on the rate control algorithm of MPEG-4 (VM8). 264, due to its unique features [38]. 264, the Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO) process precedes the rate control process. However, RDO depends on the quantizer step size (QP), which should be decided ﬁrst. ). 264. The dilemma is illustrated in Fig. 12. It should be clear from Fig. 12 that if there was a loop connecting the output of RC to the input of RDO, the above dilemma would be solved at the expense of performing twice the above part of the pipeline (and thus increasing computational complexity signiﬁcantly).

In the rate control stage, once the whole image has been compressed, a second pass over the code blocks determines how each block’s bit stream should be truncated in order a target rate to be reached. Each code block has a ﬁnite number of truncation points which equals to the number of wavelet coeﬃcients in that block. The ideal rate control strategy is the one that minimizes distortion, while still achieving the target bit rate. It can be thought as an optimal quantization step size assignment problem, as the one mentioned in the quantization section of this chapter.

In MPEG-4 (VM8), the relation is ADi ADi 2 + X2 ∗ MQP given by Ri = X1 ∗ MQP 2 , where Ri , QPi as above and M ADi i i the mean absolute diﬀerence between two collocated macroblocks. X1 and X2 are two model parameters. Regarding academic/industrial approaches to the rate control problem, in [34] the relation between rate and quantization parameter is indirectly represented with the relation between rate and the index ρ, which indicates the percent of zero coeﬃcients after quantization. 263. e. R(QP ) = QP The most widely used versions of rate control for the H264 standard are explained in [36, 37] and they are improvements on the rate control algorithm of MPEG-4 (VM8).