By G Dunn; Brian Everitt
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Additional info for A introduction to mathematical taxonomy
For example, a large C~ value would arise if one OTU was very similar to another but much larger along most of the character scales. ) In many studies in numerical taxonomy this partition into size and shape coefficients may not be of great importance, but it may 36 Measurement of similarity be useful in a minority of investigations which involve comparing organisms of widely different sizes. 4) a more satisfactory measure of the similarity in shape of two OTUs. Although Euclidean distance has been the dissimilarity measure most widely used in numerical taxonomy, as we shall illustrate by examples given in later chapters, a number of other measures have been employed in particular applications.
7 (a) The choice ofa summary statisticfor each character to describe a group or population. This might be a proportion(s) (qualitative characters) or mean value (quantitative characters). (b) Measurement of within-group variation. (c) Construction of a measure of similarity or distance based on (a), and perhaps making allowance for (b). Making allowance for within-group variation might be particularly tricky if this is not constant from one group to another, and there is no reason to believe that it should be.
94(height) both of which appear to be measures of carapace 'shape', being comparisons of length versus width and height, and height versus length and width, respectively. The first principal component often has the characteristic of a measurement of size. Jolicoeur & Mosimann (1960) emphasize that for this interpretation to be justifted all coefficients must have the same sign, whereas those of the other components must generally have mixed signs. Rao (1964) gives a mathematical 'argument for this interpretation, and the interested reader is referred to Blackith & Reyment (1971) for a fuller discussion of this point.