By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Extra resources for Access Pricing in Telecommunications
In this case it would sell 50 units of good A and 150 units of good B, for a total revenue of $200 + $300 = $500. Consumers’ surplus is now $300. This is the efficient outcome. Intuitively, by lowering the price on the more elastic good, the contribution to fixed costs from that good increased, allowing the price of other, less elastic goods, to be lowered. What if the maximum price that consumers were prepared to pay for good A was only $9? In this case the monopolist would not be able to survive if it were forced to use a common mark up – the only way the monopolist could survive is by using some form of differentiated pricing between the two goods.
A potential, drawback is that entrant’s incentives to innovate can be reduced if the monopolist uses its access pricing flexibility to expropriate entrant’s innovations. Principle 7 (again): A regulator can usually improve efficiency by allowing the regulated firm to vary its access prices subject to a cap on a weighted-average of a basket of prices. In theory, although this has yet to be tried in practice, the incentive on the monopolist to restrict competition can be reduced through the use of a global price cap covering both access and final services.
Note that such price discrimination at the access level requires knowledge by the regulated firm of the identity of the final customer and not just the identity of the firm purchasing the access input. In other words, the regulated firm must be able to trace to whom (or when or where) the corresponding final service is sold. This might not always be possible. We discuss further below the implications of the inability to price discriminate effectively at the access level. Is there a danger that the use of two-part prices at the access level will restrict competition downstream?