Advanced nutrition by Berdanier, Carolyn D

By Berdanier, Carolyn D

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The figure 72% is an average figure derived from careful direct measurements of the water content of lean tissue. Total body water (TBW) and body fat must also be determined. TBW can be measured by infusing heavy water (deuterium), allowing this to equilibrate within the body and then withdrawing a sample of blood. ” Knowing the concentration of the deuterated water, the volume that was infused, and the concentration in the blood sample withdrawn, one can calculate the volume of dilution of the infused labeled water.

A fatty acid such as palmitate will yield a net of 129 molecules of ATP (2 molecules of ATP are needed for activation). 3 kJ) per molecule. 7 kcal (3940 kJ) trapped in the high-energy bond of ATP. However, these figures do not correct for the energy trapped in the ATP molecule through substrate phosphorylation, nor do they correct for energy lost as heat. The assumption is also made that the reducing equivalents produced by these catabolic reaction sequences will be sent to the OXPHOS system for ATP synthesis.

Individuals may consciously limit food intake and increase physical activity so as not to phenotypically express their genotype. Obesity, therefore, may be considered a multifactorial phenotype. gov OMIM). Several investigators have shown that the familial trait for body fatness has a much stronger influence on body composition than environmental influences such as culture, socioeconomic status, or food-intake patterns. Stunkard and associates 39,40 as well as Bouchard and Despres 35,36 have published extensively on the responses of twins to dietary manipulation and exercise.

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