Advances in Chance Discovery: Extended Selection from by Akinori Abe (auth.), Yukio Ohsawa, Akinori Abe (eds.)

By Akinori Abe (auth.), Yukio Ohsawa, Akinori Abe (eds.)

Since yr 2000, scientists on synthetic and typical intelligences began to research probability discovery - equipment for locating events/situations that considerably impact determination making. in part as the editors Ohsawa and Abe are educating at faculties of Engineering and of Literature with sharing the curiosity in probability discovery, this e-book displays interdisciplinary facets of progress:

First, as an interdisciplinary melting pot of cognitive technology, computational intelligence, info mining/visualization, collective intelligence, … and so on, likelihood discovery got here to arrive new program domain names e.g. future health care, plane keep watch over, power plant, administration of applied sciences, product designs, recommendations, advertising and marketing, finance etc.

Second, simple applied sciences and sciences together with sensor applied sciences, clinical sciences, conversation applied sciences and so forth. joined this box and interacted with cognitive/computational scientists in workshops on probability discovery, to procure breakthroughs by means of stimulating one another. 3rd, “time” got here to be brought explicitly as an important variable ruling causalities - history events inflicting possibilities and probabilities inflicting affects on occasions and activities of people sooner or later. Readers may well urge us to checklist the fourth, 5th, 6th, … yet allow us to cease the following and open this book.

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1; this rule is confirmed as follows: 1 + 3 = 4, 6 + 1 = 7, 0 + 0 = 0, 2 + 1 = 3, 1 + 5 = 6 in each column as a blocking hypothesis, and a series of 4, 7, 0, 3, 6 from bottom to top in the third row as the target rule). Therefore, subjects are guided to form a blocking hypothesis with the horizontal relation as a sham rule. After the first eight trials, a digit predicted by the blocking hypothesis gradually disagrees with an actual third digit. That is, the blocking hypothesis doesn’t predict the third digits but the target rule is still maintained.

In this paper, we focus on the insight process in human problem solving, present a broad overview of its suddenness and the gradualness, and introduce our experimental results from the viewpoint of the duality of insight. We believe that our research findings will contribute to studies of chance discovery. Keywords: aha experience, constraint relaxation, eye movement, impasse, incubation, insight, prepared mind, reconstruction, representation change. 1 Introduction In the study of chance discovery, a chance is defined as an event or situation that may crucially affect decision-making or suggest that an important event will occur in the future.

Hoping to give himself a few minutes’ peace, his teacher asked his class to add up the numbers 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 etc. up to 100. Hardly had the class begun to add up all the numbers when Gauss put his hand up with the answer: 5050. Gauss had reconstructed the problem. He made two numerical sequences: an ascending sequence from 1 to 100 and a descending sequence from 100 to 1. ). Adding the series 1 + 2 + 3 up to 100 is therefore the same as taking half of 10, 100; that is 5050. Thus, reconstruction occurs not only in perceptual relations but also in conceptual relations.

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