Advances in cognitive science 1 by Noel E. Sharkey

By Noel E. Sharkey

This e-book, like my very own profession, has no unmarried topic which connects the entire chapters other than a dedication to the learn of cognition. i've got deliverately refrained from gathering those chapters less than conventional headings equivalent to synthetic intelligence, psychology, linguistics, or philosophy on account that many of the person chapters have a foothold in no less than such disciplines. equally, i have never sectioned the booklet into parts like semantic reminiscence, parsing, knowledge-based inference, proposal, and so on. particularly my cause was once to give a variety from high-quality researchers whose paintings isn't firmly restricted through the dogmas in their mom self-discipline. all the members during this quantity (as good as those that approximately contributed) has motivated my learn in cognitive technology over the past 5 or 6 years as mentor, colleague, pal, neighbour, or a few mix. i will be able to locate no higher motivation for this assortment. I supply it to you within the desire that you just get a number of the pleasure out of this combination that I did.

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37 38 Constructionism: A theoretical perspective on research in psychology which assumes that human beings invent or construct reality, and that the role of theory reflects scientists' attempts to explain psychological phenomena but not necessarily to predict them. , strong vs. weak, passive vs. aggressive). Functionalism: A school of psychology concerned with how an organism's or person's behavior and consciousness are functional for its survival. Gender: What culture makes out of the "raw material" of biological sex.

An even more important question, and one that is often difficult to answer on the basis of empirical research, is exactly how accurate or inaccurate are the inferences based on gender stereotypes? For example, suppose that women are more affectionate than men. Unless you know how large the differences between groups are, compared to the differences within genders (some men are certainly more affectionate than others), it might 44 45 be very difficult to determine whether this stereotype will help you assess others or will mislead you.

1988). At the question formulation stage, four potentially biasing factors have been identified. First, gender stereotypes may be associated with specific research topics. These stereotypes can bias the manner in which a question is formulated or asked and the  < previous page < previous page page_30 page_31 next page > next page > Page 31 outcomes of research. Until recently, for example, leadership was defined using traits that are consistent with the male stereotype (Loden, 1985), including strong, forceful, competent, and logical.

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