Airframe & Systems Tutorial - PPSC

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In all cases the degree of movement of the control surfaces is directly proportional to the degree of movement of the pilot’s controls. 71. On some aircraft the effect of two of the above is combined in a single set of control surfaces. Examples are elevons, which combine the effects of elevator and ailerons and which are mounted at the wing tips of some swept-wing aircraft. They move differentially for roll control and up or down together for pitch control. Tailerons are essentially the same as elevons, except that they are tailmounted rather than wing-mounted.

Since there will always be fuel in the wings, then these limiations will not be exceeded. 48. In a heavy landing for example, not only is the landing gear likely to sustain damage but the wing spar attachment points are likely to sustain damage due to the large forces as the wings move rapidly downwards. In addition, the fuselage might be subjected to excessive loading stress. Stabilisers 49. The stabilising surfaces of most aircraft are located at the tail and are known as the empennage. Typically they comprise the horizontal surfaces of stabiliser (tailplane) and elevator, for longitudinal stability and control, and the vertical surfaces of fin and rudder for directional stability and control.

This design philosophy accepts that production components will have minor flaws and anticipates their growth. Precise inspection procedures are then laid down in order that these flaws may be identified before they become critical. It is damage-tolerant design which is now used for large transport aeroplanes. Station Numbers 65. During operational service, an aeroplane will require servicing to various levels for general maintenance, and will also require the replacement of parts. It will thus be necessary to establish a method of locating various components by establishing reference lines and station numbers for various parts of the aeroplane structure.

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