An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN

By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)

Biological keep an eye on is one of the such a lot promising equipment for keep an eye on of pests (including vectors), illnesses and weeds. during this ebook ecological and societal facets are for the 1st time taken care of jointly. In an ecological technique the purpose is to guage the importance of yes organic houses like biodiversity and average habitats. additionally, it is very important see organic keep an eye on from an natural (or ecological) farming viewpoint. In a societal procedure phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are acknowledged as major for organic creation and human welfare.

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Extra resources for An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control

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Organic fruit growers try to do best with cultural practices and conservation biocontrol measures (which they collectively call “indirect measures”) to protect and enhance pest antagonists. If indirect measures are not sufficient, fruit growers apply indigenous, species specific organisms for inundative or inoculative biocontrol whenever there are commercial products available. Classical biocontrol measures are not specifically linked to organic agriculture but are also part of an organic plant protection strategy.

MAURER comprehensive overview of this regulation, see Schmidt & Haccius (1992) and Graf et al. (1999). 4. United States’ National Organic Program The United States’ National Organic Program (hereafter called ‘NOP’) was first proposed in 1997, and has been amended in 2000. For a brief history, see Baker (2004). It provides legally binding standards for organic production, processing and marketing of organic products. NOP takes a different approach to inputs than the other regulations: All natural (‘nonsynthetic’) inputs are allowed, unless they are explicitly prohibited, and all synthetic inputs are prohibited, unless they are explicitly allowed.

From the authors’ point of view, biological control with macro- and microorganisms is in principle equally compatible with organic farming, but case-by-case evaluations are necessary to eliminate unwanted cases. Whenever biological control (with macro- or microorganisms) has less side-effects on the environment than plant- or mineral based crop protection products, their use should be favoured. The strategies for crop protection and animal husbandry outlined below are based on these considerations.

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