By Lymon C Reese; William M Isenhower; Shin-Tower Wang
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Extra info for Analysis and design of shallow and deep foundations
For samples of usual dimensions in the laboratory, the time needed to achieve equilibrium varies from a few minutes for sands to several days for some clays. The delay is caused by the time needed for water to squeeze out of the specimen of soil. The more pervious soils come to equilibrium quickly, whereas relatively impervious clays are comparatively slow to equilibrate. As in pipe-ﬂow hydraulics, where the rate of water ﬂow in a pipe depends on the diameter of the pipe, the rate at which water can be squeezed from a saturated specimen of soil depends on the sizes of the openings between the soil particles.
The Atterberg limits are tested on the fraction of soil passing the #40 sieve, not the full fraction of soil. Examples of common classiﬁcations of ﬁne-grained soils are ML, CL, MH, CH, OL, and OH. If a soil is highly organic, with noticeable organic ﬁbers, it is given a peat designation, PT. 16) The uniformity coefﬁcient Cu and the coefﬁcient of curvature (called the coefﬁcient of gradation) Cc were developed to help engineers evaluate and classify the gradations of granular materials. These coefﬁcients are used to determine when different materials can be used effectively as ﬁlter materials in earth dams.
Some of the openings collapsed in the past and are ﬁlled with boulders, clay, or surﬁcial soils. The weathering processes are continuing in some areas, with the result that in sections of Florida sinkholes appear suddenly, some of which may be quite large. Investigation of the subsurface conditions in karst areas is especially critical in foundation design. In addition to careful borings of the limestone or dolomite, ground-penetrating radar is sometimes appropriate. 3. The cracks and joints in the limestone are evident.