Analysis of Surfactants by Thomas M. Schmitt

By Thomas M. Schmitt

A textual content and reference giving a pragmatic account of equipment the decision and comprehension of commercially very important person surfactants, in addition to these in compounds. Describes the make-up and structural drawings for an array of surfactants, stories concepts for choosing them within the setting, and extra.

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Procedure: Determination of Unsulfonated Alkylbenzenes by Extraction and GC (57) A 100-mg solid sample is extracted for 1 hr in an ultrasonic bath with 10 mL «-hexane. The slurry is washed in a separatory funnel with 30 mL 3 M HC1. The hexane is separated, and the aqueous phase re-extracted with four more aliquots of hexane. 5 x 18 cm; discard first 5 mL of hexane eluent, save next 13 mL for analysis), evaporated to dryness at a low temperature, and dissolved in ethanol. The alkylbenzenes are analyzed by gas chromatography on a 25 m SE-54 column, using flame ionization detection.

This procedure can be more accurate than benzethonium chloride titration, especially for determining compounds of relatively short (Cx-Cio) chain length which have greater water solubility. TM Copyright n 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 g/L aqueous solution of the surfactant is passed through a cation exchange column (1 x 15 cm, containing 15 mL Dowex 50W-X8, acid form) to convert the salts to the corresponding acids. 1 M in 70:30 benzene/methanol. The first inflection corresponds to the total sulfonate, plus the first proton of sulfuric acid.

Unsaturation (Iodine Number) Unsaturation is described in Chapter 2, under characterization of nonionic surfactants. The Wijs procedure is most often specified for anionic surfactants. H. Water Content Water content is almost always determined by titration by the Karl Fischer method (31). Weight loss methods are suitable for certain products, but the presence of volatile solvents or unsulfonated oil will lead to errors. Azeotropic distillation is used only in special cases. 1 . , Hydranal® from Riedel de Haen).

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