Analytical Techniques for Studying the Physical Properties by Maria Lidia Herrera

By Maria Lidia Herrera

This booklet will evaluation outdated and new ways to research emulsion balance and constitution. Examples of emulsion-based meals comprise ice cream, yoghurt, and mayonnaise. The physicochemical houses of emulsions play an enormous function in foodstuff structures, as they at once give a contribution to the feel, sensory and dietary houses of meals. one of many major homes is balance, which refers back to the skill of an emulsion to withstand actual adjustments over the years. the improvement of a good technique to hinder bad adjustments within the homes of a selected nutrition emulsion will depend on the dominant physicochemical mechanism(s) chargeable for the adjustments. In perform, or extra of those mechanisms may perhaps function in live performance. it's for that reason very important for nutrients scientists to spot the relative value of every mechanism, the connection among them, and the standards that impression them, in order that powerful technique of controlling the soundness and physicochemical homes of emulsions could be tested. numerous strategies are used to review the actual habit and constitution of emulsions. each one method has its benefits and drawbacks and gives varied insights into the destabilization mechanisms. one of the oldest equipment used to review emulsion balance is visible commentary and small deformation rheometry. extra lately, different recommendations, resembling ultrasound profiling, microscopy, droplet measurement distribution, and dimension of floor focus to represent adsorbed protein on the interface, have additionally been hired. a few of these options, similar to droplet dimension distribution, contain a few kind of dilution. notwithstanding, dilution disrupts a few buildings that play an enormous position in balance. the power to review the steadiness of foodstuff emulsions of their undiluted shape may perhaps exhibit sophisticated nuances approximately their balance. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Turbiscan are one of the extra robust, non-perturbing options used to characterised emulsions.

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1 Microscopic Analysis Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) An important part of our understanding of materials is derived from studies of their behavior under changing conditions of temperature, stress, environment, etc. The basis of many of these studies is the direct relationship between the microstructure and the properties of materials, whereby an understanding and characterization of the former lead to an explanation of the latter. Transmission electron microscopy has proved to be the most successful instrumental technique for this purpose by providing structural, morphological, and compositional information from small volumes of thin-foil specimens.

This method could also be useful for distinguishing between different internal nano-objects within a dispersion. Boyd et al. (2007) introduced the cryo-FESEM technique for directly investigating the 3D and surface structures of both nondispersed liquid-crystalline phases and the dispersed cubosome and hexosome particles. In that publication, they pioneered the characterization of the 3D morphology of cubosome and hexosome particles. They demonstrated that the 3D cubosome structure enclosing aqueous water channels agreed well with the proposed mathematical models using a nodal surface representation.

The polymer selected was a statistical copolymer of polyvinyl alcohol and vinyl acetate copolymer (PVA–VAc), and the emulsion was an oil-in-water system with an average droplet diameter of 200 nm. The oil consisted of oleic acid–stabilized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of size 10 nm and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP9). The questions they tried to address from those studies were the following: What was the equilibrium situation of polymer–surfactant complexation when both the polymer and surfactant have abilities to complex with each other and at the same time they can also adsorb at the droplet interface independently?

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