Application of GIS Technologies in Port Facilities and by Neal T. Wright & Jaewan Yoon (Editors)

By Neal T. Wright & Jaewan Yoon (Editors)

Program of GIS applied sciences in Port amenities and Operations administration discusses the new advances in GIS (Geographic details structures) applied sciences for port pros. This committee document identifies potent GIS options for the administration of complicated port and harbor infrastructure and discusses in-depth the features, requisites, and barriers of accessible GIS purposes. It additionally presents worthy GIS database suggestions and software program integration information, an outline and dialogue of GIS information varieties and map projections, and several other case experiences concentrating on facility and operations administration

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L2C also has better stability and improved tracking in obstructed areas such as near buildings, urban canyons, and forested areas. There are many other practical benefits. For instance, a handheld code-based receiver using one civilian code (C/A on L1) can achieve a positional accuracy of 35 APPLIED GPS FOR ENGINEERS AND PROJECT MANAGERS 36 Figure 2-10. New signal availability. about 15 to 20 m under very good conditions. One of the largest error sources degrading a GPS receiver position is the ionospheric delay (refer to Table 2-1).

In the previous section you learned how a GPS receiver uses the radio signals emitted from the satellites to calculate a set of coordinates. The accuracy obtainable using that approach can be accurate to within a few meters, sufficient for many purposes for which low-cost GPS receivers can be purchased for as little as US$100. However, most engineering applications require higher accuracy involving use of expensive receivers (see especially Chapter 5 for a discussion of highprecision systems). Part II of this book will introduce you to the considerations necessary when developing a GPS project.

2-9). Although L2C has a very similar power spectrum to the C/A code, it is important to note that they are not merely copies of each other. L2C is a bit more sophisticated than C/A code. It is actually composed of two codes, L2CM and L2CL. The CM stands for Civil-Moderate length code, which carries the improved navigation data. This new navigation message is known as CNAV (the legacy navigation message is known by the acronym NAV). The NAV is broadcast at 50 bps while the CNAV is at 25 bps (Van Sickle 2008).

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