Applications of Soil Physics by Daniel Hillel (Auth.)

By Daniel Hillel (Auth.)

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Example text

The gradient through the transmission zone tends to unity when steady infiltration is approached, as the suction gradient decreases with the increase in wetting depth, eventually leaving the gravitational gradient as the only effective driving force. 49) where Ku(ij/U) is the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the subcrust zone, a function of the suction head which develops in this zone, beginning just under the hydraulically impeding crust; H0 is the positive hydraulic head imposed on the surface by the ponded water a n d zc is the vertical thickness of the crust.

Infiltration and Surface Runoff hydraulic conductivity), L is the depth to the wetting front, hc is the pressure head at the wetting front, and KL is the hydraulic conductivity of the subcrust soil. , a low suction, or high antecedent wetness, of the subcrust soil) a n d a large value of KL. A n important qualification is in order: The Green a n d A m p t model used as the basis for R a a t s ' theory is most appropriate for soils of coarse texture with uniform, wide pores. In finer-textured soils with a wide distribution of pore sizes, wetness varies gradually with suction so that wetting fronts are not so sharp and perturbations in the wetting front may be dampened by lateral movement due to suction gradients.

1 for flood plains with a growth of heavy timber. 03 seems to be reasonable for soil surfaces (either bare or with a cover of short grass). The last version of Manning's equation can be combined with Eq. 66) 1 / 2 where β = α / « , and m = 2 for Eq. 65). The foregoing set of equations was used by Hillel a n d Hornberger (1979) to model overland flow from texturally heterogeneous fields. In agricultural fields, runoff is generally undesirable, since it results in loss of water a n d often causes erosion, the a m o u n t of which increases with increasing rate and velocity of runoff.

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