By Elmer H. Marth, James Steele
Reference and textual content offering accomplished insurance of the most recent advancements and medical advances in dairy microbiology, with an emphasis on illness prevention, probiotics, fermented dairy items and regulatory keep an eye on criteria for dairy meals.
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Additional resources for Applied Dairy Microbiology, Second Edition
The carrier effect as manifested in uitro and its specificity. Cultures were prepared from spleens of mice injected with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) 14 days before explantation. Medium samples were assayed on the eighth day of culture for inactivation of 2,4-dinitrophenyl ( DNP )-T4 bacteriophage. Hcy, hemocyanin. ) determinants ) and cells recognizing other determinants against which they do produce specific immunoglobulins. B. IDENTITY OF THE COOPERATING CELLS The notion that the induction of an antibody response is based on cooperation between two distinct cell types was originally suggested by experiments in which sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were used as im- 1.
In contrast, no response could be detected in spleens of unimmunized mice. The specificity of this carrier effect was tested in a number of experiments. Spleens of mice immunized with RSA were challenged in oitro with DNP coupled to either RSA or to various non-crossreacting carriers, human serum albumin ( HSA ) , guinea pig albumin (GPA) , Hcy from Calinectes sapidos, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) . , 1971a). Thus, preimmunization with the carrier itself led to a higher reactivity of the RSA recognizing cells in the spleen, making the spleen responsive to DNP-RSA conjugates.
It was concluded that PEC cannot replace the T cells in this system. A similar conclusion was obtained by Unanue (1970) in studies with KLH. Which cell population, then, do the macrophages interact with? It could be argued that the RSA macrophage complex acts on T cells and activates their functional cooperation with B cells. , 1972) and that T-cell activation involves cell replication (Kunin, 1973) may be relevant to this discussion. , 1970) showed that macrophage-lymphocytes interaction is associated with lymphocyte replication.